Open Theses

Important remark on this page

The following list is by no means exhaustive or complete. There is always some student work to be done in various research projects, and many of these projects are not listed here. Don't hesitate to drop an email to any member of the chair asking for currently available topics in their field of research.

Abbreviations:

  • BA = Bachelorarbeit, Bachelor's Thesis
  • MA = Masterarbeit, Master's Thesis
  • GR = Guided Research
  • CSE = Computational Science and Engineering

Hacking Corona

We search for talented students with excellent skills in Python, parallel programming and numerics to support studying the spread of the diseases like Corona based on mobile phone data.

Your tasks would be the development of scalable and algorithmically optimized pre- and postprocessing tools as well as simulation of the disease spread on high-end super computers. More information will be provided upon request.

This work will be in collaboration with Pedro S. Peixoto from the University of Sao Paulo.

Contact: Dr. Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de). Include your Transcript and a one page tabular CV.

Others

MA: A Tool to Generate Synthetic Time Series.

Background: Time series data is at the heart of monitoring of any process or object. A time series is a sequence of data points ordered by the time. Each data point contains one (univariate) or more (multivariate) values measured at the particular point in time for some variable. The measurements can arise in versatile domains such as Internet of Things (temperature, humidity from sensors), performance engineering of computer systems (values in performance counters and resource utilization at particular points in time), cloud computing (requests rate, latencies and resource utilization). Analysis procedure for time series heavily depends on a particular application domain, though the analytical primitives that do not depend on a particular domain can be identified, e.g. forecasting, anomaly and outliers detection, clustering and classification of time series. Though the approaches for time series analysis are well-developed, there remains a challenge to analyze time series that are generated continuously over indefinite amount of time. Our team addresses this challenge by developing a platform to enable distributed processing and analysis of indefinitely long time series.

Task: The goal of the thesis is to develop a standalone tool that will generate synthetic time series according to the user’s preferences either by a) taking an initial time series provided to it as a model for generation or by b) taking a parametrized model to generate the time series according to existing mathematical methods. Supported user’s preferences include: length of time series, granularity of time series (e.g. hourly), presence of outliers, presence of particular patterns (e.g. retry storm pattern after a service has failed and users try to get back), seasonality, trend. Parametrized models supported for the generation include: AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, GARCH + some augmentations and combinations thereof. The tool should support integration into the larger system.

We offer:

  • Thesis in the area that is highly demanded by the industry
  • Our expertise in data science and systems areas
  • Supervision and support during the thesis
  • Access to the LRZ cloud
  • Opportunity to publish a research paper with your name on it

What we expect from you:

  • Devotion and persistence (= full-time thesis)
  • Critical thinking and initiativeness
  • Solid knowledge of data engineering or math, in particular time series analysis
  • Good skills in Python or R
  • Knowledge of distributed systems is an additional advantage
  • Attendance of feedback discussions on the progress of your thesis

Apply now by submitting your CV and grade report to Vladimir Podolskiy (v.podolskiy@tum.de) with Anshul Jindal in CC (anshul.jindal@tum.de).

In the scope of work funded by:

MA: Power-Performance Optimization for HPC Systems with Emerging Memory Technologies

Background: High Performance Computing (HPC) systems are facing severe limitations in both power and memory bandwidth/capacity. By now, both limitations have been addressed individually: To optimize performance under a strict power constraint, Power Shifting, which allocates more power budget on the bottleneck component, and Co-Scheduling, which launches multiple jobs on one single node, are promising approaches; for memory bandwidth/capacity increase, the industry has begun to support Hybrid Memory Architecture that utilizes multiple different technologies (e.g., 3D stacked DRAM, Non-Volatile RAM) in one main memory. Approach: In this thesis, you will look at the combination of both technology trends and develop one (or both of) the following techniques: (1) Footprint-Aware Power Shifting and/or (2) Footprint-Aware Co-Scheduling. Both ideas are based on the same observation: in spite of the system software's efforts to optimize data allocations on a hybrid memory based system, the effective memory bandwidth decreases considerably when we scale the problem size of applications (e.g., using finer-grained or larger-scaled mesh models). As a result, the performance bottleneck changes among components depending on the footprint size, the memory consumption of the executed application, which then significantly affects the power-performance optimization strategies such as Power Shifting and Co-Scheduling. You will provide a basic solution for this emerging problem and develop a framework to realize it. More Information: Download Contact: Eishi Arima, Carsten Trinitis

Various MPI-Related Topics

Please Note: MPI is a high performance programming model and communication library designed for HPC applications. It is designed and standardised by the members of the MPI-Forum, which includes various research, academic and industrial institutions. The current chair of the MPI-Forum is Prof. Dr. Martin Schulz.  The following topics are all available as Master's Thesis and Guided Research. They will be advised and supervised by Prof. Dr. Martin Schulz himself, with help of researches from the chair. If you are very familiar with MPI and parallel programming, please don't hesitate to drop a mail to either Dai Yang or Prof. Dr. Martin Schulz.  These topics are mostly related to current research and active discussions in the MPI-Forum, which are subject of standardisation in the next years. Your contribution achieved in these topics may make you become contributor to the MPI-Standard, and your implementation may become a part of the code base of OpenMPI. Many of these topics require a collaboration with other MPI-Research bodies, such as the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories and Innovative Computing Laboratory. Some of these topics may require you to attend MPI-Forum Meetings which is at late afternoon (due to time synchronisation worldwide). Generally, these advanced topics may require more effort to understand and may be more time consuming - but they are more prestigious, too. 

MA/GR: Porting LAIK to Elastic MPI & ULFM

LAIK is a new programming abstraction developed at LRR-TUM

  • Decouple data decompositionand computation, while hiding communication
  • Applications work on index spaces
  • Mapping of index spaces to nodes can be adaptive at runtime
  • Goal: dynamic process management and fault tolerance
  • Current status: works on standard MPI, but no dynamic support

Task 1: Port LAIK to Elastic MPI

  • New model developed locally that allows process additions and removal
  • Should be very straightforward

Task 2: Port LAIK to ULFM

  • Proposed MPI FT Standard for “shrinking” recovery, prototype available
  • Requires refactoring of code and evaluation of ULFM

Task 3: Compare performance with direct implementations of same models on MLEM

  • Medical image reconstruction code
  • Requires porting MLEM to both Elastic MPI and ULFM

Task 4: Comprehensive Evaluation

MA/GR: Lazy Non-Collective Shrinking in ULFM

ULFM (User-Level Fault Mitigation) is the current proposal for MPI Fault Tolerance

  • Failures make communicators unusable
  • Once detected, communicators an be “shrunk”
  • Detection is active and synchronous by capturing error codes
  • Shrinking is collective, typically after a global agreement
  • Problem: can lead to deadlocks

Alternative idea

  • Make shrinking lazy and with that non-collective
  • New, smaller communicators are created on the fly

Tasks:

  • Formalize non-collective shrinking idea
  • Propose API modifications to ULFM
  • Implement prototype in Open MPI
  • Evaluate performance
  • Create proposal that can be discussed in the MPI forum

MA/GR: A New FT Model with “Hole-Y” Shrinking

ULFM works on the classic MPI assumptions

  • Complete communicator must be working
  • No holes in the rank space are allowed
  • Collectives always work on all processes

Alternative: break these assumptions

  • A failure creates communicator with a hole
  • Point to point operations work as usual
  • Collectives work (after acknowledgement) on reduced process set

Tasks:

  • Formalize“hole-y” shrinking
  • Proposenew API
  • Implement prototype in Open MPI
  • Evaluate performance
  • Create proposal that can be discussed in the MPI Forum

MA/GR: Prototype for MPI_T_Events

With MPI 3.1, MPI added a second tools interface: MPI_T

  • Access to internal variables 
  • Query, read, write
  • Performance and configuration information
  • Missing: event information using callbacks
  • New proposal in the MPI Forum (driven by RWTH Aachen)
  • Add event support to MPI_T
  • Proposal is rather complete

Tasks:

  • Implement prototype in either Open MPI or MVAPICH
  • Identify a series of events that are of interest
  • Message queuing, memory allocation, transient faults, …
  • Implement events for these through MPI_T
  • Develop tool using MPI_T to write events into a common trace format
  • Performance evaluation

Possible collaboration with RWTH Aachen

 

MA/GR: Prototype Local MPI Sessions

New concept discussed in the MPI forum: MPI Sessions

  • Avoid global initialization if not necessary
  • Enable runtime system to manage smaller groups of processes
  • Provide groups for containment and resource isolation

Currently two modes of thinking

  • The main proposal builds on local operations and only at the end switches to global
  • Alternative: treat sessions as global objects

Tasks:

  • FormalizeMPI Sessions using local operations
  • Complete API proposal
  • Implement prototype in Open MPI or MVAPICH
  • Evaluate performance
  • Create proposal that can be discussed in the MPI Forum

Possible collaboration with EPCC (Edinburgh)

MA/GR: Evaluation of PMIx on MPICH and SLURM

PMIxis a proposed resource management layer for runtimes (for Exascale)

  • Enables MPI runtime to communicate with resource managers
  • Come out of previous PMI efforts as well as the Open MPI community
  • Under active development / prototype available on Open MPI

Tasks: 

  • Implement PMIx on top of MPICH or MVAPICH
  • Integrate PMIx into SLURM
  • Evaluate implementation and compare to Open MPI implementation
  • Assess and possible extend interfaces for tools 
  • Query process sets

MA/GR: Active Messaging for Charm++ or Legion

MPI was originally intended as runtime support not as end user API

  • Several other programming models use it that way
  • However, often not first choice due to performance reasons
  • Especially task/actor based models require more asynchrony

Question: can more asynchronmodels be added to MPI

  • Example: active messages

Tasks:

  • Understand communication modes in an asynchronmodel
  • Charm++: actor based (UIUC)•Legion: task based (Stanford, LANL)
  • Propose extensions to MPI that capture this model better
  • Implement prototype in Open MPI or MVAPICH
  • Evaluation and Documentation

Possible collaboration with LLNL and/or BSC

MA/GR: Crazy Idea: Multi-MPI Support

MPI can and should be used for more than Compute

  • Could be runtime system for any communication
  • Example: traffic to visualization / desktops

Problem:

  • Different network requirements and layers
  • May require different MPI implementations
  • Common protocol is unlikely to be accepted

Idea: can we use a bridge node with two MPIs linked to it

  • User should see only two communicators, but same API

Tasks:

  • Implement this concept coupling two MPIs
  • Open MPI on compute cluster and TCP MPICH to desktop
  • Demonstrate using on-line visualization streaming to front-end
  • Document and provide evaluation
  • Warning: likely requires good understanding of linkers and loaders

Quantum Computing architectures

The current generation of silicon-based computer hardware leads to new challenges of computational efficiency. With the transistor sizes close to molecular level, the only increase in performance can be gained by an increase in additional parallelism. This creates in particular problems for simulations (e.g. Weather/Climate simulations) which strongly rely on an increase in computational performance to finish the simulation within a particular time frame. Here, Quantum Computing goes beyond the physical limitations and provides new ways to run algorithms.

+ BA/MA/GR: Numerical algorithms on Quantum computers

You will get familiar with the method of quantum computing and existing literature. Based on this, simple algorithms will be developed and executed on quantum computers or simulators, enabling you to assess how algorithms can benefit from quantum computing.

Prerequisites: discrete structures, algorithms, numerical mathematics, basic understanding of quantum mechanics

Due to the high interest in this project, please consider these important remarks:

  • This project requires excellent math skills. Seriously! No math, no fun!
  • If you like to do this project because Quantum Computing simply sounds interesting, this is definitively the wrong project for you!
  • If you apply for this project, please also submit at least one alternative project from the ones below

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

Co-Advisor: Jun.-Prof. Dr. Christian Mendl (TU Dresden)

Software for efficient exploitation of High-performance Computing Architectures

+ BA/MA Interfacing libPFASST with 3rd party developments (CURRENTLY UNDER INVESTIGATION)

The "Parallel Full Approximation Scheme in Space and Time" can provide significant wall clock vs. solution improvements for solving partial differential equations on super computers. Due to the challenging mathematics, libPFASST is a library which provides convenient interfaces, avoiding to be exposed to details of this time integration method.

This project would investigate libPFASST from a software engineering perspective with the following tasks:

* interfacing libPFASST and PDE solvers written in the C/C++ and Python language

* migrate test problems from Fortran to C/C++

* investigate automatic interface generation

* interface libPFASST with SWEET (https://schreiberx.github.io/sweetsite/), a PDE solver for single-layer atmospheric equations

* designing unit tests, e.g. to validate these interfaces, check for memory leaks

Strong knowledge and experience in software engineering is expected.

Keywords: libpfasst, software engineering, MPI, Numerics

Requirements: parallel programming (MPI), software engineering, communication in English via Email

Collaborators: Dr. Michael Minion (Lawrence Berkeley National Labs), Dr. Francois Hamon (Total E&P Research and Technology, USA)

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Portable performance assessment for programs with flat performance profile

The Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) is commonly used in weather and climate simulations to account for the ocean-atmosphere interactions. Here, high-performance computing optimizations are mandatory to keep up with the steadily increasing demands of higher accuracy which is mainly driven by higher resolutions. NEMO itself consists out of a large set of kernel functions with each one having its own optimization challenges. As a first step, performance characteristics should be extracted from these kernels by using performance counters. Based on this information, potential optimizations should be pointed out.

NEMO: https://www.nemo-ocean.eu/

Prerequisites: high-performance computing, computer architectures

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Performance portable job submission

Super-computers not only differ in their computing architectures, but also with the software stack. All together, executing simulations on different super computers leads to additional challenges to ensure optimal resource utilization such as pinning, allocation of computing nodes, etc. This project would be on developing tools to provide a cross-super-computer portable way to generate job scripts, submit jobs and accumulate the output data of jobs.

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

Weather (and climate) simulations on future HPC architectures

Weather forecasts contribute to our daily life. Putting on proper clothing for the rain in 2 hours, planning hiking trips and improving harvesting times for farmers, to name just a few examples. Being a well established research area, a lot of advances led to the current state-of-the-art dynamical cores (the computing parts to simulate the fluid dynamics parts of our atmosphere). Several projects are available which work on investigating new algorithms and numerical methods to improve weather and climate forecasting models.

General prerequisites: interest in numerical algorithms, time integration of ODEs, high-performance computing

Various terminology will be used in the description of the potential projects which is explained as follows:

SWE: Using a full three-dimensional atmospheric core would lead to significant computational requirements, even if only horizontal effects should be studied. Therefore, the Shallow-Water Equations (SWE) are used as a proxy to assess properties of numerical methods for horizontal discretization aspects, using coefficients to represent properties of the full atmospheric equations.

REXI: Rational approximation of exponential integrators: Typically, time integration methods suffer of the so-called CFL condition. For weather and climate simulations, this leads to severe limitations regarding the number of required time step sizes. In contrast, rational approximations of exponential integrators allow to compute arbitrarily long time step sizes for linear operators and based on a rational approximation to spread the computational workload across additional computing resources.
Linear SWE on plane: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1094342016687625
Linear SWE on sphere: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/nla.2220

OpenIFS: This software is the open-source version of the dynamical core which is used in the current operational forecasting by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). OpenIFS website: https://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/projects/openifs

SWEET: This software development is a testing platform realizing e.g. the SWE on the sphere to quickly assess the quality of new numerical methods for time integration.
Repository: github.com/schreiberx/sweet SWEET website: https://schreiberx.github.io/sweetsite/

ML-SDC / PFASST: Spectral deferred correction (SDC) methods allow to construct higher-order time integrators with a combination of lower-order (e.g. forward/backward Euler) accurate time steppers. This can be combined with a multi-level (similar to multi-grid) approach (ML-SDC). Additionally, we can execute speculative solutions in time, leading to PFASST.
ML-SDC: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021999118306442
PFASST website: https://pfasst.lbl.gov/projects

Contact for all projects mentioned below: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Assessing REXI in OpenIFS

Extend REXI to the model used by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and assess its performance.

Expected outcome: Performance assessment on using REXI in combination with OpenIFS

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Implementation and performance assessment of ML-SDC/PFASST in OpenIFS (CSE related) [CURRENTLY NOT AVAILABLE]

Extend ML-SDC and PFASST time integration methods into OpenIFS. This can be done step-by-step, depending on the encountered complexity. First implementing the SDC time integration method, next exploiting the multi-level representation and finally, extending it with the parallel-in-time PFASST.

Expected outcome: Studying accuracy, wallclock time and extreme-scalability of a weather simulation with OpenIFS

Potential collaborators: Michael Minion (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US), Francois Hamon (Total E&P, US)

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Vertical time integration

In dynamical cores for weather and climate simulations, the PDE is separated into horizontal and vertical parts. This project would investigate new (exponential) time integration methods in the vertical and study errors in these methods.

Expected outcome: Study the utilization of exponential time integration methods for the vertical time integration for weather simulations.

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Fast implicit time integration

Solving system of equations is a common task in scientific computing. However, this often doesn’t take into account the physical meaning of the underlying system of equations to be solved. Instead of solving for a global system of equations, this project will exploit the physical meaning of hyperbolic PDEs and investigate solvers which exploit locality features of wave propagations. A success in this would lead to a new way of efficient time integrations in climate and weather simulations.

Expected outcome: Highly efficient solver for implicit time integration

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Semi-Lagrangian methods with Parareal (CSE related)

Semi-Lagrangian methods allow significantly larger stable time steps for climate and weather simulations compared to purely Eulerian methods. However, they also result in an increase in errors for very large time step sizes. Preliminary studies with the Burgers' equation showed, that these errors can be fixed using a parallelization-in-time with the Parareal method. This project would be to investigate this method and assess its feasibility for climate and weather simulations.

Potential collaborators: Pedro S. Peixoto (University of Sao Paulo)

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA: Non-interpolating Semi-Lagrangian Schemes

Semi-Lagrangian schemes typically require spatial interpolation. However, this is challenging for higher orders in mathematical as well as computational aspects. This project would investigate a non-interpolating Semi-Lagrangian scheme suggested decades ago (link to paper) and assess its importance on current computer architectures and for higher-order time integration methods.

Potential collaborators: Pedro S. Peixoto (University of Sao Paulo)

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

Time integration (generic) on future HPC architectures

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA/GR: Health science project: Biological parameter optimization

Part of computational biology is the execution of simulations in order to gain understanding in biological processes such as the eye-brain feedback loop. Gaining this understanding is challenged by high-dimensional imposed computational requirements which requires to exploit current and future heterogeneous architectures.

As part of this project, you will develop a domain specific language for ODE solvers. Such solvers will simulate biological behavior such as the eye-brain feedback loop. You will research methods which will allow to (a) discretize these solvers and (b) ensure a highly optimized execution of them on high-performance computer architectures. More information on this will be provided in a personal meeting.

Potential outcome: Support computational biologists to gain faster insight into diseases, targeting the improvement of the patient's health.

Collaborators: This project will be in collaboration with Dr. Ozgur Akman from the University of Exeter, UK

Contact: Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA: (Exponential) implicit solvers for non-linear equations

This project will study the implicit time integration solvers for selected non-linear PDEs (e.g. Burgers’ and shallow-water equations). A first test case will be to implement a fully-implicit time integration method for the non-linear shallow-water equations. Once this test case is working, extensions with exponential integrators (see REXI) and preconditioners should be studied.

Expected outcome: Assessment of the feasibility to use implicit time integration for the non-linear SWE depending on different initial conditions.

+ BA/MA: Unstable and inconsistent time integration for higher accuracy

A common expected mathematical property of a time integration method is to be stable and consistent. In particular the consistency applies only in the limit where the timestep size trends towards 0. However, such small time step sizes are never used operationally, e.g. for weather forecasting. This project will study possibilities to design inconsistent time integration methods targeting reduced errors compared to time integration methods which are consistent.

Expected outcome: New time integration method for larger time step sizes.

Contact: Dr. Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA: Time-splitting methods for exponential integrators for the non-linear SWE

A common way to time integrate PDEs is to use a splitting approach, separating the stiff from the non-stiff parts. However, this leads to missing interactions between the linear and non-linear equations. This project would investigate such splitting errors in a numerical way.

Expected outcome: Gain understanding in time-splitting errors for linear and non-linear equations.

Contact: Dr. Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA: Machine learning for non-linear time integration

Machine learning technologies get increasingly common also in scientific computing. Whereas linear parts can be solved in efficient ways with particular numerical methods, the non-linear parts still pose grand challenges. One way to treat them might be with a machine learning approach.

Possible outcome: Feasibility study to represent properties of ordinary and partial differential equations with machine learning.

Contact: Dr. Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA: Exponential integrators with forcing (CSE related)

Exponential integrators are excellent for linear operators. However, additional challenges arise if including a forcing term (e.g. for tidal waves). This project will investigate different methods to include the forcing terms in a way to be still able to compute arbitrarily long time step sizes.

Possible outcome: New method to include forcing into exponential integrators and to compute arbitrarily long time step sizes.

Contact: Dr. Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ MA: Exponential integrators and higher-order Semi-Lagrangian methods

Semi-Lagrangian methods allow to overcome time step restrictions imposed by the non-linear advection parts. However, such semi-Lagrangian methods are typically limited by an order of 2. This project would investigate the development of higher-order methods and to assess the applicability them for weather and climate simulations.

Potential collaborator: Prof. Dr. Pedro S. Peixoto (University of Sao Paulo)

Contact: Dr. Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)

+ BA/MA: Time integration with Cauchy Contour integral methods (also CSE related)

Various time integration methods can be formulated in terms of Cauchy Contour integral methods. Directly formulating such methods as a discrete Contour integral can lead to new insight and advantageous properties.

Potential outcome: Improve the way how time integration is done nowadays.

Potential collaborator: Prof. Pedro S. Peixoto (University of Sao Paulo)

Contact: Dr. Martin Schreiber (martin.schreiber@tum.de)